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for conveying British goods into the interior of Africa. It is said that the corsairs or pirates of Algiers form a small republic, of which the rais or captain is the supreme bashaw; who, with the officers under him, form a kind of douwan, in which every matter relating to the vessel is decided. These corsairs are chiefly instrumental in importing whatever commodities are brought into the kingdom by way of merchandize or prizes, as gold and silver stuffs, damasks, cloths, spices, tin, iron, plated brass, lead, quicksilver, cordage, sail-cloth, bullets, cochineal, linen, tartar, alum, rice, sugar, soap, cotton, copperas, aloes, Brazil wood, logwood, vermilion. Few commodities, at present, are exported from Algiers. Ostrich feathers, copper, rugs, silk sashes, embroidered handkerchiefs, dates, &c. are the most remarkable.

The inland inhabitants, distinguished by the name of Berebers, are the proper natives of the country, supposed to have been descended from the ancient Sabeans, who plundered the patriarch Job; and still retaining their original character of robbers and pirates, removed from Arabia Felix and settled at Algiers.

Others believe them to be descended from the Canaanites, who were driven out of Palestine by Joshua. They are dispersed all over Barbary, and divided into a multitude of tribes under their respective chiefs: most of them inhabit the mountainous parts; some range from place to place and live in tents or portable huts; others in scattered villages: in which situation they have generally kept from intermixing with other nations. The Berebers are reckoned the richest of all the Algerines, go better clothed, and carry on a much larger traffic in cattle, hides, wax, honey, iron, and other commodities. They have also some artificers in iron, and some manufacturers in the weaving branch.-The name, Bereber, is supposed to have been originally given them on account of their being first settled in some desert place. Upon their increasing in process of time they divided themselves into five tribes, probably on account of religious differences, called Zinhagians, Muscamedins, Zeneti, Hoares, and Gomeres; and these having produced 600 families, subdivided themselves into a great number of petty tribes.-To these we may add the Zwowahs, by European authors called Azuagues, or Assagues, who are likewise dispersed over the greater part of Barbary and Numidia. Great numbers of these inhabit the mountainous parts of Cuco, Labez, &c. leading a wandering pastoral life. But the most numerous inhabitants have long been Moors and Arabians. The former are very stout and warlike, and skilful horsemen ; but so addicted to robbing, that one cannot safely travel along the country at a distance from the towns without a guard, or at least a marabout or saint for a safeguard. The inhabitants, in general, have a pretty fair complexion; they are robust and well proportioned. People of distinction wear their beards; they have rich clothes made of silk, embroidered with flowers of gold, and turbans enriched with jewels. The Turks, who compose the military force, have great privileges, pay no taxes, are never publicly punished, and rarely in private. The lowest soldier domineers

over the most distinguished Moors at pleasure. If he finds them better mounted than himself, be exchanges horses without ceremony The Turks alone have the privilege of carrying fire-arms. Some good qualities, however, distinguish them, in spite of this excess of despotism. They never game for money, nor even for trifles; and they never profane the name of the deity. They soon forget their private quarrels; and, after the first paroxysm of resentment is over, it is infamy for a Turk to keep in remembrance the injuries be has received. In this respect certainly they are less barbarous than some other nations that boast of their civilization.

The government of Algiers, although it has been styled a republic, is neither republican nor despotic, but a sort of oligarchy, or at least approximating to that model. According to some writers it is difficult to ascertain what it is, whether a vile oligarchy, an aristocratical commonwealth, or a lax, tumultuous, ill-regulated despotism. Almost every dey that succeeds to the throne, paves the way by the murder of both his predecessor and rival competitors, and is himself at last strangled or otherwise despatched at the pleasure of a more powerful rival. To the imper fection of its government, may be in a great measure attributed the many miseries of this unhappy kingdom,

The population consists chiefly of Moors and Turks, who though not more than 7000 in number, keep the government in their own hands exclusively. The most enlightened of the peo ple are the Cologlis, or the children of the Turks by the Moorish women. The Moors are divided into two kinds, the Kabylas or mountain tribes, and the Berebers, the mechanics of the country. The Arabian tribes keep themselves totally distinct and are employed in commerce.

The cadi is the ecclesiastical judge, besides whom there is a superior religious officer, called mufti or high-priest; and an inferior one called the grand marabout. To these officers les the supreme appeal in all religious concerns. The people are generally ignorant; yet so jealous are the higher ranks of their authority, that prin ing, according to M. Pantani, has been prohibited, lest there should be too much knowledge in the nation. The only instruction consists in teaching boys to read and repeat fifty or sixty aphonses from the Koran. The Alfagni or learned men are jugglers.

The Algerine kingdom made formerly a cous derable part of the Mauritania Tingitana, Ser MAURITANIA, which was reduced to a Roma province by Julius Cæsar, and from him also called Mauritania Cæsariensis. After the Romans had been driven out of Africa by the Va dals, and the latter by the Saracens about the middle of the seventh century, the Arabs cont nued masters of the country, divided into petty kingdoms under chiefs of their own choosing, til the year 1051, when Albubeker ben Omar, or, a the Spanish authors call him, Abu Texeter, provoked at the tyranny of those despots, gathered, by the help of his marabouts, or sains, a power ful army of malcontents, in Numidia and Libya His followers were named Morabites; by the Spaniards, Almoravides, probably from their being

assembled principally by the Mahommedan saints so called The khalif of Kayem's forces were at this time taken up in queiling revolts in Syria, Mesopotamia, &c. and the Arabs in Spain engaged in the most bloody wars; so that Texefien, having nothing to fear from them, had all the success he could wish against the Arabian cheyks whom he repeatedly defeated, and at last drove out of Numidia, Libya, and all the western parts, reducing the whole province of Tingitania under his dominion. He was succeeded by his son Yusef, or Joseph, who laid the foundation of Morocco, which he designed for the capital of his empire. While that city was building, he sent ambassadors to Tremecen, at that time inhabited by a powerful sect of Mahommedans called Zeneti, proposing to bring them back to what he called the true faith; but the Zeneti, despising his offers, murdered his ambassadors, and invaded his dominions with an army of 50,000 men; whereupon he immediately led his army into their country, destroying all before him with fire and sword; while the Zeneti, instead of opposing his progress, retired as fast as possible towards Fez, in hopes of assistance. But in this they were miserably deceived, for the Fezzans coming up with the unhappy Zeneti, encumbered with their families and baggage, and ready to expire with hunger and weariness, cut them all to pieces, except a small number who were either drowned in attempting to swim across a river, or perished by falling from the adjacent rocks. Meantime Joseph reduced their country to a mere desert; but it was soon repeopled by a numerous colony of Fezzans, who settled there. In this war it is computed that near a million of the Zeneti, men, women, and children, lost their lives. Notwithstanding the assistance Joseph had thus received from the Fezzans, he declared war against them, reduced them to become his tributaries, and extended his conquest all along the Mediterranean. He next attacked those Arabian cheyks who had not yet submitted, taking many castles and fortresses, till then deemed impregnable; and at last completely subdued them. Thus was founded the empire of the Morabites, which, however, was of no long duration; that race being in the 12th century driven out by Mohavedin, a marabout. This race of priests was expelled by Abdulac governor of Fez; and he, in the 13th century, was stripped of his conquests by the Sharifs of Hascen, the descendants of those Arabian princes whom Abu-Texefien had formerly expelled. The better to secure their new dominions, the Sharifs divided them into several little kingdoms or provinces; and among these the present kingdom of Algiers was divided into four, viz. Tremecen, Tenez, Algiers Proper, and Bujeyah. The four first monarchs laid so good a foundation for a lasting balance of power between their little kingdoms, that they continued for some centuries in mutual ainity; but at length the king of Tremecen having ventured to violate some of their articles, Abul Farez, king of Tenez, declared war against him, and obliged him to become his tributary. This king dying soon after, and having divided his kingdom among his three sons, new discords arose; which Spain taking advan

tage of, sent a powerful fleet and army against Barbary, in 1505, under the count of Navarre, who took Oran, Bujeyah, and some other inportant places; which so alarmed the Algerines, that they put themselves under the protection of Selim Eutemi, an Arabian prince. He came to their assistance with a great number of his bravest subjects, but was not able to prevent the Spaniards from landing a number of forces near Algiers, and making the Algerines tributary to Spain; or from building a strong fort on a small island opposite to the city, which terrified their corsairs from sailing either in or out of the harbour. They continued under this yoke until 1516; when, hearing of the death of Ferdinand, king of Spain, they sent to Aruch Barbarossa, who was at this time no less dreaded for his valour than for his surprising success, requesting him to join his forces with those of Selim Eutemi, and free them from the Spanish yoke; offering him a gratuity answerable to so great a service. Upon this Barbarossa immediately despatched eighteen galleys and thirty barks to the assistance of the Algerines: while he himself advanced towards the city with 800 Turks, 3000 Jigelites, and 2000 Moorish volunteers. In his road to Algiers, he surprised Hassan, another famed corsair, and obliged him to surrender; not without a previous promise of friendship: but no sooner had Barbarossa got him in his power, than he cut off his head; and obliged all Hassan's Turks to follow him in his new expedition. On Barbarossa's approach to Algiers, he was met by prince Selim, attended by the people, who looked for deliverance from this abandoned villain, whom they accounted invincible. He was conducted into the city amidst their acclamations, and lodged in one of the noblest apartments of prince Eutemi's palace, where he was treated with the greatest marks of honour. Elated beyond measure with this kind reception, Barbarossa formed a design of becoming king of Algiers; and fearing op position from the inhabitants, on account of the excesses he suffered his soldiers to commit, caused prince Eutemi to be murdered at the baths, and caused himself to be proclaimed king; his Turks and Moors crying out as he rode along the streets, Long live King Aruch Barbarossa, the invincible king of Algiers, the chosen of God to deliver the people from the oppression of the Christians; and destruction to all that shall oppose, or refuse to own him as their lawful sovereign. This last threatening so intimidated the inhabitants, already apprehensive of a general massacre, that he was immediately acknowledged king. The unhappy princess Zaphira, Selim's queen, poisoned herself, to avoid the brutality of this tyrant, whom she unsuccessfully endeavoured to stab with a dagger. After this, Barbarossa treated his subjects with such cruelty, that they used to shut up their houses and hide themselves when he appeared in public. A plot was formed against him, but being discovered, he caused twenty of the principal conspirators to be beheaded, and their bodies to be buried in a dunghill, and laid a heavy fine on those who survived; which so terrified the Algerines that they never afterwards

attempted any thing against him. Meantime, the son of prince Selim, having fled to Orar, and put himself under the protection of the marquis of Gomarez, laid before that nobleman a plan for putting the city of Algiers into the hands of the king of Spain. Upon this young Selim Eutemi was sent into Spain, to lay his plan before cardinal Ximenes; who, having approved of it, sent a fleet with 10,000 land forces, under the command of Don Diego de Vera, to drive out the Turks, and restore the young prince. But the fleet was no sooner come within sight of the land, than it was dispersed by a storm, and the greatest part of the ships dashed against the rocks. Most of the Spaniards were drowned; and the few who escaped were either killed by the Turks or made slaves. The king of Tenez made an attack upon him, but as the rest of the history of this bloody tyrant will be narrated under the article BARBAROSSA, it is only necessary to add here, that, after taking and plundering Tenez, and being chosen king of Tremecen, by the inhabitants, who were displeased with their own sovereign, he was at last killed by Abuchenmen, king of Tremecen, assisted by the Spaniards, in the forty-fourth year of his age, and second of his reign over Algiers. The circumstances of his defeat and death are related as follows: The prince of Tremen fleeing to Charles V. obtained an army of 10,000 under the command of the marquis Gomarez, who besieged him closely. Taking with him 1500 Turks and 5000 Moors, he sallied out upon his besiegers, but was obliged to retire and defend himself within the citadel of Tremecen. Seeing no other prospect of escape, he dug a subterraneous passage, by which means he left the city, but was pursued by some Spaniards, who, although he scattered plate and jewels in the way, would not suffer themselves to be diverted, and at last overtook him at Harxda, eight leagues from Tremecen, and despatched him. Abuchen-men was then declared king.

Although the news of Barbarossa's death spread the utmost consternation among the Turks at Algiers, they nevertheless proclaimed his brother Hayradin king; and the Spanish commander, having sent back the emperor's forces, without making any attempt upon Algiers, he lost the opportunity of driving the Turks out of that country; while Hayradin, justly dreading the consequences of the tyranny of his officers, sought the protection of the grand seignior. This was readily granted, and himself appointed bashaw or viceroy of Algiers; by which means he received such reinforcements, that the Algerines durst not make the least complaint; and such numbers of Turks resorted to him, that he became not only capable of keeping the Moors and Arabs in subjection at home, but of annoying the Christians at sea. His first step was to take the Spanish fort of Calan, which was a great nuisance to his metropolis, and though the Spaniards held out to the last extremity, he soon became master of it. He next set about building a strong mole for the safety of his ships. In this he employed 30,000 Christian slaves, whom he

obliged to work without intermission for three years, in which time the work was completed. He then caused the fort he had taken to be repaired, and placed a strong garrison in it, to prevent any foreign vessels from entering the harbour without giving an account of themselves. By these two important works, Hayradin soon became dreaded not only by the Arabs and Moors, but also by the maritime Christian powers, especially the Spaniards. The grand seignior having sent him a fresh supply of money, he was enabled to erect batteries on all places that might favour the landing of an enemy. All these have since received greater improvements from time to time, as often as there was occasion. Meantime the Sultan, either from a sense of the great services Hayradin had done, or out of jealousy lest he should make himself independent, raised Hayradin to the dignity of bashaw of the empire, and appointed Hassan Aga, a Sardinian renegado, and an experienced officer, to succeed him as bashaw of Algiers. Hassan had no sooner taken possession of his new government, than he began to pursue his ravages on the Spanish coast with greater fury than ever; extending them to the ecclesiastical state, and other parts of Italy; whereupon Pope Paul III. exhorted the emperor Charles V. to send a powerful fleet to suppress those cruel piracies; and, that nothing might be wanting to render the enterprise successful, a bull was published, wherein a plenary absolution of sins, and the crown of martyrdom, were promised to all who should either fall in battle or be made slaves. The emperor on his part needed no spur; and therefore set sail with a fleet of 120 ships and 20 galleys, having on board 30,000 chosen troops, and an immense quantity of money, arms, ammunition, &c. In this expedition many young nobility and gentry attended as volunteers, and many knights of Malta, so remarkable for their valour against the enemies of Christianity, Even ladies of birth and character attended Charles in his expedition, and the wives and daughters of the officers and soldiers followed them, with a design to settle in Barbary after the conquest was finished. The Algerines were greatly alarmed by this prodigious armament The city was defended only by a wall, with scarce any outworks. The whole garrison consisted of 800 Turks and 6000 Moors, without fire arms, and poorly disciplined and accoutred; the rest of their forces being dispersed in the other provinces of the kingdom, to levy the usual tribut on the Arabs and Moors. The Spaniards landed without opposition, and immediately built a fort, under the cannon of which they encamped, and diverted the course of a spring which supplied the city with water. Being now reduced to the utmost distress, Hassan was on the point of sur rendering, when advice was brought him that the forces belonging to the western government were in full march towards the place; upon which it was resolved to defend it to the utmost. Charles, in the mean time, resolving upon a general assault, kept a constant firing upon the town; which, from the weak defence made by the ga rison, he looked upon as already his own. But

while the douwan or Algerine senate, were deliberating on the most proper means of obtaining an honourable capitulation, a mad prophet, named Yuself, attended by a multitude of people, entered the assembly, and foretold the speedy destruction of the Spaniards before the end of the moon, exhorting the inhabitants to hold out till that time. This prediction was soon accomplished in a very surprising and unexpected manner: for, on the 28th of October, 1541, a dreadful storm of wind, rain, and hail, arose from the north, accompanied with violent shocks of earthquakes, and an universal darkness, so that the elements seemed to combine together for the destruction of the Spaniards. In that night, some say in less than half an hour, eighty-six ships and fifteen galleys were destroyed, with all their crews and military stores, by which the army on shore was deprived of all means of subsisting in these parts. Their camp also, which spread itself along the plain under the fort, was laid quite under water by the torrents which descended from the neighbouring hills. Many of the troops, trying to remove into some better situation, were cut in pieces by the Moors and Arabs; while several galleys, and other vessels, endeavouring to gain some neighbouring creeks along the coasts, were immediately plundered, and their crews massacred by the inhabitants. Next morning Charles beheld the sea covered with the fragments of so many ships, and the bodies of men, horses, and other creatures, swimming on the waves; at which he was so disheartened, that abandoning his tents, artillery, and all his heavy baggage, to the enemy, he marched at the head of his army, though in no small disorder, towards cape Malabux, in order to re-imbark in those few vessels which had outweathered the storm. But Hassan =who watched his motions, allowed him just time to get to the shore, when he attacked the Spaniards in the midst of their hurry to get into their ships, killing great numbers, and bringing away a still greater number of captives; after which he returned in triumph to Algiers, where he celebrated his happy deliverance with great rejoicings. In this unfortunate expedition upwards of 120 ships and galleys were lost, above 300 land and sea officers, 8000 soldiers and marines, besides those destroyed by the enemy on the re-imbarkation, or drowned in the last storm. The number of prisoners was so great, that the Algerines sold some of them, by way of contempt, for an onion per head. Charles himself escaped with difficulty to Tunis with his few remaining followers. Hassan afterwards made his ally the king of Tremecen tributary, and returning to Algiers laden with riches, soon after died of a fever, in the sixty-sixth year of his age. After this Haji became king, and the Spaniards afterwards were never able to annoy the Algerines in any considerable degree. In 1555 they lost the city of Bujeyah, which was taken by Selha-Rais, Hassan's successor, who dying soon after of the plague, the Algerine soldiers chose a Corsican renegado, Hassan Corso, in his room, till they should receive farther orders from the Porte. He did not accept of the bashawship without a good deal of difficulty; and he had hardly enjoyed his dignity four months, before news came

that eight galleys were bringing a new bashaw to succeed him; one Tekelli, a principal Turk of the grand seignior's court: upon which the Algerines unanimously resolved not to admit him. By the treachery of the Levantine soldiers, however, he was admitted at last, and the unfortunate Corso thrown over a wall in which a number of iron hooks were fixed; one of which catching the ribs of his right side, he hung three days in the most exquisite torture before he expired. Tekelli was no sooner entered upon his new government, than he behaved with such cruelty and rapacity, that he was assassinated even under the dome of a saint, by Yusef Calabres, the favourite renegado of Hassan Corso; who, for this service, was unanimously chosen bashaw, but died of the plague six days after his election. Yusef was succeeded by Hassan, the son of Hayradin, who had formerly been recalled from his bashawship, when he was succeeded by Selha-Rais: and now had the good fortune to get himself reinstated in his employment. Next year the Spaniards undertook an expedition against Mostagan, under the command of the Count d'Alcandela; but were defeated, their commander killed, and 12,000 taken prisoners. Hassan having disobliged his subjects by allowing the mountaineers of Cuco to buy ammunition at Algiers, was sent in irons to Constantinople, while the aga of the Janisaries supplied his place. Hassan found means to clear himself: but a new bashaw was appointed, called Achmet; who was no sooner arrived, than he sent the two deputy bashaws to Constantinople, where their heads were struck off.-Achmet was a man of insatiable avarice, and had bought his dignity by the money he had amassed while head gardener to the Sultan. He enjoyed it, however, only four months; and after his death, the state was governed other four months by his lieutenant; when Hassan was a third time sent viceroy to Algiers, where he was received with the greatest demonstrations of joy. The first enterprise in which Hassan engaged, was the siege of Marsalquiver, near Oran. His army consisted of 26,000 foot and 10,000 horse; and his fleet of thirty-two galleys and galliots, together with three French vessels laden with provisions. The city was defended by Don Martin de Cordova, brother of the Count d'Alcandela, who had been taken prisoner in the battle where that nobleman was killed, but had obtained his liberty from the Algerines with immense sums, and now made a most gallant defence against the Turks. The city was attacked with the utmost fury by sea and land, so that several breaches were made in the walls. The Turkish standards were several times planted on the walls, and as often dislodged; but the place must have in the end submitted, had not Hassan been obliged to raise the siege, on hearing that the famed Genoese admiral Doria was approaching with succours trom Italy. The fleet accordingly arrived soon after; but missing the Algerine galleys, bore away for Pennon de Velez, where they were shamefully repulsed by a few Turks who garrisoned that place; which, however, was taken the following year. In 1567 Hassan was again recalled to Constantinople, where he died three years after. He was succeeded by Mahomet,

who gained the love of the Algerines by several public spirited actions. He incorporated the Janissaries and Levantine Turks together, and by that means put an end to their dissensions, which laid the foundation of the Algerine inde pendency on the Porte. He likewise added some considerable fortifications to the city and castle, which he designed to render impregnable. But while he was thus studying the interest of Algiers, one John Gascon, a bold Spanish adventurer, formed a design of burning the whole piratic navy in the bay; but this plan, though patronised by king Philip II. proved abortive, owing to the dampness or improper mixture of the fire works; and Gascon himself, being taken prisoner, was barbarously slain by the Algerines. Mahomet, being soon after recalled, was succeeded by the famous renegado Ochali, who reduced the kingdom of Tunis; which, however, remained subject to the viceroy of Algiers only till the year 1586, when a bashaw of Tunis was appointed by the Porte. In 1585, under Memi Ärnaud an Albanian, we first find the Algerines passing the Straits of Gibraltar, and extending their depredations as far as the Canary Islands, where they made a descent, carried off 300 persons (including the governor's family), with great plunder, but admitted some of the principal ladies to ransom. Early in the seventeenth century the government of the Algerines underwent considerable revolution.

Algiers, till the beginning of the seventeenth century, continued to be governed by viceroys appointed by the Porte; concerning whom we find nothing very remarkable, further than that their avarice and tyranny was intolerable both to the Algerines and the Turks. At last the Turkish Janissaries and militia becoming powerful enough to suppress the tyrannic sway of these bashaws, and the people being almost exhausted by the heavy taxes laid upon them, the former resolved to depose those petty tyrants, and set up some officers of their own at the head of the realm. The better to succeed in this attempt, the militia sent a deputation of some of their chief members to the Porte, to complain of the oppression of these bashaws, who sunk both the revenue of the state, and the money remitted to it from Constantinople, into their own coffers, which should have been employed in keeping up and paying the soldiery; by which means they were in continual danger of being overpowered by the Arabians and Moors, who, if ever so little assisted by any Christian power, would hardly fail of driving all the Turks out of the kingdom. They represented to the grand vizier how much more honourable, as well as easier and cheaper, it would be for the grand seignior to permit them to choose their own dey, or governor, from among themselves, whose interest it would then be to see that the revenue of the kingdom was rightly applied in keeping up its forces complete, and in supplying all other exigencies of the state, without any farther charge or trouble to the Porte than that of allowing them its protection. On their part, they engaged always to acknowledge the grand seigniors as their sovereigns, and to pay their usual allegiance and tribute, to respect their bashaws, and even to lodge,

and maintain them and their retinue, in a manner suitable to their dignity at their own charge The bashaws, however, were, for the future, to be excluded from assisting at any but general douwans, unless invited; and from having the liberty of voting in them, unless when their advice was asked, or the interest of the Porte was likely to suffer by their silence. All other concerns, which related to the government of Algiers, were to be wholly left under the direction of the dey and his douwan. These proposals having been accepted by the Porte, the deputies returned highly satisfied; and having notified their new privileges, the great douwan immediately proceeded to the election of a dey from among themselves. They compiled a new set of laws, and made several regulations for the better support and maintenance of this new form of government, to the observation of which they obliged all their subjects to swear; and the militia, navy, commerce, &c. were all settled pretty nearly on the footing upon which they now are; though the altercations that happened between the ba shaws and deys, the one attempting to recover their former power, and the other to curtail it, caused such frequent complaints at the Ottomar court, as made them often repent their compl ance. In 1601, the Spaniards, under Doria the Genoese admiral, made another attempt upon Algiers, in which they were more fortunate than usual, their fleet being only driven back by comtrary winds, so that they came off without loss. In 1609, the Moors being expelled from Spain, flocked in great numbers to Algiers; and many of them were very able sailors, they undoubtedly contributed to make the Algerine fleet so formidable as it became soon after. In 1615 it consisted of forty sail, of between 200 and 400 tons, their admiral 500 tons. It was divided into swo squadrons, one of eighteen sail, before the port of Malaga; and the other at the Cape of Santa Maria, between Lisbon and Seville, both of which fell foul on all Christian ships, both English and French, with whom they pretended to be in friendship, as well as Spaniards and Portuguese, with whom they were at war The Algerines were now become very formidable to the European powers. The Spaniards, who were most in danger, and least able to cope with them, solicited the assistance of England, Rome, and other states. The French, however, were the first who dared to show their resentment ef the perfidious behaviour of these miscreants; and in 1617 M. Beaulieu was sent against them with a fleet of fifty men of war, who defeated their fleet, took two of their vessels, while ther admiral sunk his own ship and crew, rather than fall into his hands. In 1690 a squadron of Erglish men of war was sent against Algiers, under Sir Robert Mansel; but it returned without doing any thing; and the Algerines, becoming more and more insolent, openly defied all the European powers, the Dutch only excepted; to whom, in 1625, they sent a proposal, directed to the prince of Orange, that in case they would fit out twenty sail of ships the following year, upon any good service against the Spaniards, they would join them with sixty sail of their own Next year, the Coulolies, or Cologlies, the chal

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