Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science

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Princeton University Press, 1998 - 223 pages

A generation ago, scholars saw interest groups as the single most important element in the American political system. Today, political scientists are more likely to see groups as a marginal influence compared to institutions such as Congress, the presidency, and the judiciary. Frank Baumgartner and Beth Leech show that scholars have veered from one extreme to another not because of changes in the political system, but because of changes in political science. They review hundreds of books and articles about interest groups from the 1940s to today; examine the methodological and conceptual problems that have beset the field; and suggest research strategies to return interest-group studies to a position of greater relevance.

The authors begin by explaining how the group approach to politics became dominant forty years ago in reaction to the constitutional-legal approach that preceded it. They show how it fell into decline in the 1970s as scholars ignored the impact of groups on government to focus on more quantifiable but narrower subjects, such as collective-action dilemmas and the dynamics of recruitment. As a result, despite intense research activity, we still know very little about how groups influence day-to-day governing. Baumgartner and Leech argue that scholars need to develop a more coherent set of research questions, focus on large-scale studies, and pay more attention to the context of group behavior. Their book will give new impetus and direction to a field that has been in the academic wilderness too long.

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About the author (1998)

Frank R. Baumgartner is a highly respected political scientist with a long list of scholarly writings based on his research interests. He was born in 1958 and educated at the University of Michigan (B.A., 1980; M.A., 1983; Ph.D., 1986). Included in his works are political planning, political jurisdictions, legislative behavior, comparative politics, French politics, American national institutions, and research design and measurement. Two of Baumgartner's better known books are Agendas and Instability in American Politics (1993), an account of how public policies can change rapidly even in established institutions; and Survey Research and Membership in Voluntary Organizations (1988), a study of the political action of lobbying and interest groups. Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science written with Beth L. Leech, is a work that reviews books and articles about interest groups from 1940 to the present, and examines the methodology of political scientists. The authors conclude that in order to improve the methodology of political scientists better research questions are needed along with more attention to the context of group behavior. Baumgartner is a professor of Political Science at Texas A&M University.

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