The Cambridge History of China: Volume 15, The People's Republic, Part 2, Revolutions Within the Chinese Revolution, 1966-1982

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Roderick MacFarquhar, John K. Fairbank, Denis Crispin Twitchett
Cambridge University Press, 1991 M11 29 - 1136 pages
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Volume 15 of The Cambridge History of China is the second of two volumes dealing with the People's Republic of China since its birth in 1949. The harbingers of the Cultural Revolution were analyzed in Volume 14. Volume 15 traces a course of events still only partially understood by most Chinese. It begins by analyzing the development of Mao's thought since the Communist seizure of power, in an effort to understand why he launched the movement. The contributors grapple with the conflict of evidence between what was said favorably about the Cultural Revolution at the time and the often diametrically opposed retrospective accounts. Volume 15, together with Volume 14, provide the most comprehensive and clearest account of how revolutionary China has developed in response to the upheavals initiated by Mao and Teng Hsiao-p'ing.
 

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Contents

Mao Tsetungs thought from 1949 to 1976
1
The Chinese state in crisis
107
Chinas physical features page
108
political WadeGiles romanization
154
political pinyin romanization
156
warfare and diplomacy
218
The SinoSoviet border
258
SinoSoviet clashes March and August 1969
259
Economic indicators during the first phase of the readjust ment period 19791981
499
Growth of foreign trade
501
Structure of Chinese exports
502
Treaty ports under the unequal treaties to 1911
504
Coastal areas open to foreign investment 1984
505
Industrial growth 19811986
507
Rural development strategy
514
Growth rates of agricultural output
517

Soviet and Chinese force levels 19691976 page
297
Soviet and Chinese force dispositions 19691976
299
Soviet and Chinese nuclear delivery vehicles 19691976
300
THE STRUGGLE
303
Politburo named after CCPs Ninth Congress April 1969
308
The fall of Lin Piao
311
allies and conspirators
327
The rise and fall of the Gang of Four
336
Leadership changes April 1969August 1973
344
The political complexion of the Politburo after the death of Chou Enlai
359
Interregnum
371
Teng Hsiaopings program
388
S The opening to America
402
Stagnation and turmoil 19731976
426
The road to normalization 19771979
435
Chinas invasion of Vietnam 17 February 5 March 1979
446
Toward an independent posture 19801982
457
The implications of SinoAmerican relations
469
Chinas economic policy and performance
475
Population
476
Indexes of industrial output during the Cultural Revolution
481
Transport and commerce during the Cultural Revolution
482
Railways
484
economic
485
Industrial development strategy 19661976
486
Realization of plan targets
487
Foreign trade ratios
490
Investment in capital construction by sector
491
Investmentoutput ratios in selected industries
492
The marginal capitaloutput ratio
493
Real and nominal wages and rural collective incomes
494
Changing industrial strategies 19771980
495
Agricultural inputs
518
Accounting for Chinas agricultural growth
520
Smallscale cement plants
523
Rural policy changes after 1979
524
Grain imports and exports
529
Conclusions
534
Education
540
Education in the GPCR
557
The negation of the educational revolution
575
Primary schools and enrollments
578
general secondary
581
specialized secondary
582
The Chinese model in Third World perspective
589
ideological attacks
595
The model Peking Operas on contemporary revolutionary
607
The countryside under communism
622
Urban life in the Peoples Republic
682
The middle years 19571965
703
The Cultural Revolution decade 19661976
716
PostMao China 1977 and beyond
729
Conclusions
737
Literature under communism
743
Taiwan under Nationalist rule 19491982
815
Taiwan
816
the onus of unity
875
meetings and leaders
883
Party leadership 19651969
884
Party leadership 19731982
885
State leaders 19651983
887
Bibliography
939
Glossaryindex
1025
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About the author (1991)

Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar was born in Lahore, India on December 2, 1930. He graduated with a degree in philosophy, politics and economics from Keble College, Oxford University, in 1953. He briefly worked at The Telegraph of London before receiving a master's degree in East Asian studies from Harvard University. In 1960, he founded The China Quarterly, an academic journal on Chinese politics and economics published by the University of Cambridge. He was elected to Parliament in Britain as a Labour candidate in 1974 and served for five years. He went on to teach history and political science at Harvard. He was the director of the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies at Harvard from 1986 to 1992, and again from 2005 to 2006. He wrote several books including The Origins of the Cultural Revolution. He died from heart failure on February 10, 2019 at the age of 88.

Born in South Dakota, John King Fairbank attended local public schools for his early education. From there he went on first to Exeter, then the University of Wisconsin, and ultimately to Harvard, from which he received his B.A. degree summa cum laude in 1929. That year he traveled to Britain as a Rhodes Scholar. In 1932 he went to China as a teacher and after extensive travel there received his Ph.D. from Oxford University in 1936. Between 1941 and 1946, he was in government service---as a member of the Office of Strategic Services, as special assistant to the U.S. ambassador to China, and finally as director of the U.S. Information Service in China. Excepting those years, beginning in 1936, Fairbank spent his entire career at Harvard University, where he served in many positions, including Francis Lee Higginson Professor of History and director of Harvard's East Asian Research Center. Fairbank, who came to be considered one of the world's foremost authorities on modern Chinese history and Asian-West relations, was committed to reestablishing diplomatic and cultural relations with China. He was also committed to the idea that Americans had to become more conversant with Asian cultures and languages. In his leadership positions at Harvard and as president of the Association for Asian Studies and the American Historical Association, he sought to broaden the bases of expertise about Asia. At the same time, he wrote fluidly and accessibly, concentrating his work on the nineteenth century and emphasizing the relationship between China and the West. At the same time, his writings placed twentieth-century China within the context of a changed and changing global order. It was precisely this understanding that led him to emphasize the reestablishment of American links with China. More than anyone else, Fairbank helped create the modern fields of Chinese and Asian studies in America. His influence on American understanding of China and Asia has been profound.

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