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len into any contempt.' (Works, v. ii. p.
4, 5.) The same excellent writer has noticed
extraordinary demand for books on agri-
lture under the peaceful sway of James I.
deserves to be remarked,' he observes, be.
use it is not generally known, that the trea-
es of husbandry and agriculture which were
blished about that time are so numerous,
it it can scarcely be imagined by whom they
re written, or to whom they were sold.'
rigin and Importance of Fugitive Pieces, John-
's Works, v. xi. p. 191.) On which an able
ntemporary thus comments-'Nothing can
istrate more strongly the effects of a pacific
stem of policy, in encouraging a general
te for reading, as well as an active spirit
improvement. At all times, and in every

country, the extensive sale of books on agri
culture, may be regarded as one of the most
pleasing symptoms of mental cultivation in the
body of the people.'

140. These (1826) are times of peace: states-
men are more willing to learn how to govern
mankind in times of peace than formerly, and
seem sincerely directing their attention to every
commercial topic. Let them not neglect agri-
culture; let the laws connected with it engage
that share of parliamentary and general con-
sideration which their importance demands;
let commercial men sympathize with the pecu-
liar burdens of agriculturalists; and let the
agriculturalist consider his own true interests
best pursued in conjunction with those of the
entire country.



RICULTURE, definition of, 1. Two great branches BRAIN of animals, how composed and connected,
of, ib. Universal interest of, ib. Its early intro-
duction, ib. Practised by the Chaldeans, ib. The
Chinese, ib. The Egyptians, ib. Arrangement of
this treatise, 3. Respective systems of, 4. Re-
ferences for information concerning, 5. Requisites
to the practice of, 6. Sciences connected with, 7.
Principles and objects of, 67. History of, 114.
In Egypt, ib. Its antiquity, ib. Among the Ro-
mans, 115. Roman authors on, ib. Laws of
Romulus respecting it, ib. In the middle ages,
125. Saxon, 126. Norman, 128. Of England,
in Henry VII's. reign, 129. First author on the
subject, ib. In Elizabeth's reign, 130. Writers

BRANCHES, organization of, 44. Parts of, ib. Di-
rection of, ib.

BREEDING of animals, 112.

BRITAIN, ancient, as an agricultural country, 124.
BUD, constitution of, 15. Organs of, ib. Frequent
deficiency of, 45. Origin of, ib. Development
of, ib.

on it in the seventeenth century, 134. Progress
of it in the eighteenth, 136. Shock it sustained in
1815, 137. Present favourable prospects of, ib.
Its paramount importance, 139. Sale of books on

this subject in James I. reign, ib.

BULBS, classification of, 15. Constitution of, ib.
BULBOUS roots divide the soil, 86.
BURNING of soils, 81.

CABBAGE and turnips compared, 87. Flourishes in
a wheat soil, 89.
CALCAREOUS earths, 74, 75. Matter as manure, 94.
CARTHAGINIAN threshing, 120.
CAUDEX of plants imperfect, 15. Modes of, ib.
CHALDEANS, agriculture of, 1.
CHALK, as manure, 94.

IR, no plant healthy unless duly supplied with it, 99. CHEMICAL analysis of soils, 75. Its difficulty, mode
LBURNUM, causes of conversion of, 41.

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ASCENT and descent of vapours, 101.

of conducting it, &c. ib.

CHINESE, agriculture of, 1.

CLAY in soils, 75. Answers for wheat, 88. Moist
answers for beans, ib.

CLIMATE to be consulted, shelter, and shade, 67.
CLOVER, red, ensures wheat, 89.

CLOUDS, their agency in vegetation, 96.

COLD and hot soils, 77. Cold, its general causes, 96.
Effects on vegetation, ib.

COMPOSITE ORGANS of imperfect plants, 16. Unfold-
ing of, 41.

CORIUM, or true skin of animals, 106. Colourless
and penetrated with blood-vessels and nerves, ib.

ATMOSPHERE, its connection with vegetation, 99. CORN, mode of destroying grubs in it, 59. Corn-

Its changes important, 100.

BAGS, prevention of, 51.

BAKEWELL'S manuring by water, 22.

BANKS, Sir J., discoveries respecting blight, 51.
BARLEY, 88. May succeed wheat, 89.

BEANS, 84. 88.

BEETLES in 1574, 59.

BIRDS, &c. at Rome, enormous price of, 122.
BLIGHT, cause of, 51. Species of, ib. Effects, ib.
arising from fungi, ib. Evidences of, ib. Sir
J. Banks's discoveries respecting it, ib.

BONES, as manure, 92. Of animals, how composed


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butterfly, ravages of in France, 63. Cure of, ib.
CORPUS MUCOSUM of animals, 106.
CORTICAL Layers, description of the, 16. Constitu-
tion of, ib. Use in grafting, ib.

CROPS that encourage weeds to be avoided, 90. Re-
petition of, to be avoided, 92.

CRUSTS, appendages of the skin, 106.
CULMIFEROUS Plants, 84. Depend largely on the
soil for nourishment, ib. All their seeds ripe to-
gether. 85. Affected by the dews, ib.
CULTIVATION of soils, 71.

CURLED disease in potatoes, remarks on the, 64. (I.)
Causes of, ib. (III. and XVI.) Reversion of, ib.
(IV. and XVII.) Experiments on, ib. (V. VI.
and XVII.) Conclusions respecting the disease,
New mode of avoiding it, 66.
CUTICLE of animals, 106.

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EARTHS, experiments on, 26. Principle of nourish- JOHNSON, Dr. on agriculture, 138. ment, ib.

EGYPTIANS, agriculture of, 1.

ELECTRICITY, its agency in vegetation, 95. 98.

EMBRYO, vegetable parts of, 40. Vegetable anato-
my of, ib.

EPIDERMIS, description of, 16.

FARMER, Roman, described, 116.

FEATHERS of birds, an appendage of the skin, 106.
FERRUGINOUS soils, 74.

FIBRE, ancient uses of, 16. Texture of, ib.
FECUNDATION, opinions upon, 48.

IRON, sulphate of, as manure, 94.
IRRIGATION of soils, 82.

ITALY, blight of, 51. As an agricultural country, 116
JUICE, descent of, 39. Colour and use of, ib. Dr.
Darwin's experiment on, ib. Supposed cause of de-
scent of, ib. Of plants, flux of, 51.
LANDS exhausted in a few years, 91.
LATIMER, Bp. His father's farm described, 130.
LAYERS, successive formation of, 43.
LEAF-STALK of plants, imperfect, 15.
Anatomy of, ib. Knight's discoveries in, 41.
LEAVES, air inhaled by, 36. Principle of, doubtful, 4.

FISH, as manure, 92. Should be ploughed in fresh, LEATHER CHIPPINGS as a manure, 92.

ib. Bred by the Romans, 122.

FISH-PONDS, Roman, their value, 122.

FITZHERBERT, Sir A. (1534) first writer on agricul-
ture in England, 129.

FLOWER, early completion of, 47. Anomalies of, ib.
FLOWER-STALK of plants imperfect, 15. Description
of, ib. Anatomy of, ib. Constitution of, ib.
FRACTURE, causes of, 50. Cure of, ib.
FLIES in turnips, 60. Preventive of, 60-62.
FLUX of juices in plants, 51.

FROST, its causes, 101.

FRUIT, mode of preserving, 68.

FUNGI, definition of, 13.

GENERA of soils, how determined, 71.

GEOLOGICAL structure of the earth, 70.

GERM of imperfect plants, 15.

GERMANY, ancient, as an agricultural country, 124.
GERMINATION, commencement of, 18. Conditions

of, ib. Influence of warmth upon, ib. Necessity of moisture to, ib. Influence of air upon, ib. Experiments on, in gases, ib. Accelerated by acid, ib. Period of, in plants, 19. First symptom of, 20. First symptom of, accounted for, ib. Progressive steps of, ib. Philosophy of, ib. GIRDLING, mode of, 50.

GLASGOW, prevailing winds at, 102.

GOOGE, B. an early writer on agriculture, 133.
GRASS, sheltering it, the effects of, 97.

GREEKS, agriculture of, 1.

GROUND improved by immersion, 22.

GRUBS in corn, 59. Their ravages in Norfolk, ib.
GYPSUM, as manure, 94.

HAIL, its causes, 101.

HAIR, as manure, 92. Of animals an appendage of the skin, 106.

HAMEL, Du. on disease of saffron, 57.

HARRISON, Rev. early writer on agriculture,.33.
HEAT, its agency in vegetation, 95, 96. And co.,
their general causes, 96.

HELVETIA, as an agricultural country, 124.
HENRY VII. Agriculture in his reign, 129.
HEPATICE, description of, 13.

Uses of, ib.

LEGUMINOUS plants nourished by the air, 84. Hew
affected by dew, 85.

LIGHT, its agency in vegetation, 95, 96.
LIME as manure, 94. Sulphate of as ditto, ib,
LIMESTONE, 94. Ditto powdered, ib.
LINSEED-CAKE, a good manure, 92.
LONDON, prevailing winds at, 102.
MAGNESIA as manure, 94.

MALT-DUST, a good manure, 92. Marl, 94.
MANURE, best, 67. The whole to be employed, 91.
Animal, 92. Vegetable, ib.
Other species of, tà
Some to be used fresh, ib. Rape-cake, malt-dus,
linseed-cake, and sea-weed, good manures, d
Fish, ib. Organic, 93. Mineral, 94. Alkaline
earth as, ib. Lime, ib. Magnesia, ib. Marl,
Chalks, ib. Limestone powdered, quick-lime, &r
ib. Vegetable, should be applied to its ow
species, 92.

MANURING by water, principle of, 22.
METALLIC oxides in soils, 75.
MILDEW, nature of, 51. On wheat, shape of, s,
Prevention of, ib.

MINERALOGY connected with agriculture, 70. Gent-
ral principles of that science, ib.
Moss tribe, description of, 13.
MUSCULAR structure of animals, 107.
NERVES of animals, 107,
NERVOUS system, 107.
NITRE, as manure, 94.

NORMAN agriculture, 127.

NOURISHMENT of plants by water, 22. Want of nea rishment, its evidences, 57.

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'LANTS, twofold structure of, 9. Perfect, external =structure of, ib. Conservative organs of, 10. Conservative appendages, 11. Reproductive organs, 12. Imperfect, external structure of, 13. Imperfect, definition of, ib. Imperfect, distribution of, ib. Imperfect, internal structure of, 14. Imperfect, internal organs of, ib. Imperfect, decomposite organs of, 15. Imperfect, pericarp of, ib. Nourishment of, 21. Nourishment of by air, 23. Experiments on in gases, ib. Nourished by vegetable extract, 24. Nourished by salts, 25. Salts in composition of, ib. Nourished by earths, 26. Discases of, 51. Culmiferous, 84. Leguminous, depend much on the air, ib. Sheltered by snow, 97.

'LATT, Sir H., an early writer on agriculture, 133. 'OTASSA, sulphate of, as manure, 94.

'OTATOES, curled disease of, 64. Improvements in setting, 64, (XV.) How best preserved, 68. Their quality of dividing the soil, &c., 86. And turnips compared, 87. First introduced into England, 133. PRESERVING fruit, 68.

PRICE of birds, &c. at Rome, 122.

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SILICA, its modifications, 75.
SILICEOUS soils, 74.

SKIN of animals includes several coats, 106. Its appendices, ib. Secretions, ib.

SMUT, nature of, 51. Prevention of, ib. Dr. Home's opinion of, 55.

SNOW, its causes, 101.

Qualities of, 73.

Decided by

SOIL, cause of difference in, 27.
SOILS, table of, 71.
what plants grow in them, 74. Argillaceous, cal-
careous, silicious, &c. described, ib. Quality of,--
evinced by chemical analysis, 75. Specific gravity
of, ib. Their uses, 76. A variety required, ib.
For bulbous roots, ib. For barley and turnips, ib.
Mixture of alumina and silica required, ib. Clayey
requires mixture with sand, &c. ib. Cold and hot, 77.
Black and pale, ib. Those which cool quickly, ib.
Rich, ib. Pulverization of, 79. To be improved
according to their predominant quality, 80. Burn-
ing of, 81.

Soor as manure, 92,94.

SPECIES of soil, how determined, 71.
SPECIFIC gravity of soils, 75.

SPINAL marrow of animals, 106.

STEM, progression of, 43.

STRUCTURE of the earth, 70.
STIFF clays, 76.

PULVERIZING of soils, 79. Its advantages and dis- SUB-SOIL, its quality very important, 78. Should

advantages, ib.

RAPE-CAKE, a good manure, 92.

regulate ploughing, &c. ib. Often impregnated with oxide of iron, ib.

SULPHATE of lime as manure, 94. Of iron, ib. Of potassa, ib.

RAY'S account of agriculture in Scotland, 1660,-135. TABLE of soils, 71.

REARING of animals, 113.
RED-RUST, nature of, 51.
RED-GUM, 51.

REPETITION of the same crop to be avoided, 90.
REPRODUCTION of animals, 109.

ROBERTSON'S mode of curing mildew, 51.
ROMAN agriculture, 1. Roman villa described, 116.
Implements, 118. Threshing, 120. Animals,
birds, &c. reared, 122. Maxim of agriculture, ib.
Roman, profits of, uncertain, 123.

ROOT, annual augment of, 42. Perpendicular de-
scent of, ib. Influence of oxygen upon, ib. Strength
of, ib.

ROOTS and leaves good manure for wheat, 91. ROTATION of crops, 83. Principles of it, ib. destroys insects, 91.

SAFFRON, disease of, 57.

And potatoes

THRESHING, Roman, 120. Carthaginian, ib.
TORREFACTION of soils, 81.
TURNIPS, how best preserved, 68.
compared, 87. And cabbage, ib.
TUSSER'S, account of agriculture in 2nd. Elizabeth's
reign, 130. His Five Hundred Points of Hus-
bandry published, 133.

VEGETABLES, fragrancy of, 32. Bath of recom

mended, 33. Transmutation of putrid matters by,
34. Transmutation, necessity of, 35.
VEGETABLE sexuality, and impregnation of the seed,
48. Known to the Greeks, ib.
Several organs
of, ib.

VEGETABLE chemistry, nature of, 17.
It VEGETABLE nutrition, process of, 36.
VEGETATION, lord Kames's experiments on, 27.
Earth best suited for, 28.

SAP, diffusion of, 37. Constant motion of, ib. Con-
stant motion of proved, ib. Opinions of the ascent
of, ib. Ascent, means of discovered, ib. Ascent
of in leaves, ib. Ascent of in fruit-stalk, ib. En-
tire course, mystery of, ib. Elaboration of, 38.
Incipient elaboration of, unknown, ib. Elaboration
of in leaves, ib.
SALINE soils, 74.

SALT as manure, 94
SAND in soils, 75.
SEA-WEED a good manure, 92.

SAXON agriculture, 126. Laws of respecting agricul

ture, ib.

SCALES of animals, an appendage of the skin, 106.
SCOTLAND as an agricultural country, 128. Laws in
it respecting agriculture, 132.

SEED, divisions of, 15. Anatomy of, ib.
SERIES of earths, primitive, second, third, &c. 71.
SNOW, its use as a shelter of plants, 97.
SHELLS of fish, &c. an appendage of the skin, 106.
SHELTERING of grass, its effects, 97.
SHOOT, annual formation of, 41.
SHOWERS, to be consulted and imitated, 67.

VERMIN, modes of destroying, 58.
VILLAS, Roman, described, 116.
VINE the, cultivated in England, 133.
VISCOUS secretions of the skin, 106.
UNCTUOUS secretions of the skin, 106.
USES of animals in agriculture, 111.
WATER used as manure by Mr. Bakewell, 22.
Anderson's essays on, ib. Its abundance to be
rectified, 81. Must be supplied when deficient, ib.
Its agency in vegetation, 95.


WEEDS, crops that encourage them to be avoided, 89.

WESTON, Sir R. improves the culture of clover and turnips, 134.

WHEAT requires more nourishment than other grain, 86. Requires a leguminous crop to follow, 88. WIFE'S Occupation in ancient times, curious account of, 129.

WILD GRAIN, cause of, 64, (IX.)

WIND, as connected with agriculture, 102. Prevail-
ing winds at London and Glasgow, ib.
WOOD, constitution of, 16.

WOOLLEN RAGS, as a manure, 92.

AGRICULTURE, BOARDS and SOCIETIES, founded in 1793. The Agricultural Reports of the different counties, many of them surveyed a second time, exhibit great ability, and have been followed by a General Report of the Agricultural State and Political circumstances of Scotland, of considerable value. Many of these county societies were in operation prior to the existence of the Board of Agriculture, and contributed to prepare the public mind for that national institution.

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for the ENCOURAGEMENT of. The first society for the promotion of agriculture in the British isles, of whose history we have any account, was The Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland, instituted in 1723. This association exerted itself with considerable success, in introducing cultivated herbage and turnips, and improving on former modes of culture. The earl of Stair, one of its active early members, is said to have been the first who cultivated turnips in that country. But the example appeared to have little effect upon the practice of the common tenantry. Maxwell, who for one or two sessions, delivered lectures on agriculture, at Edinburgh, gives the first notice of a threshing machine, in his Transactions of the Society of Improvers. It appears to have been invented by Michael Menzies, advocate, who obtained a patent for it; and, according to the report of the above society, one man by the assistauce of this machine, might do the work of six. One of the machines was moved by a great water-wheel and treddles;' and another, by a wheel of three feet diameter, moved by a small quantity of water.' See Encyc. Brit. and Ed. Encyc. Art. Agr. and Brown's Rural Affairs. Draining, inclosing, summer-fallowing, sowing flax, hemp, grass seeds, turnip and rape, planting cabbages after, and potatoes with, the plough, in large fields, were now introduced; and more corn was grown, where it was never known to grow before, by one sixth of the former produce of the kingdom. Hope, of Rankeillor, a member of this society, among other patriotic exertions, drained the morass, near Edinburgh, formerly known as Straiton's Loch; and projected the walks over the grounds now known as the meadow walks, for some time a fashionable place of resort. Cockburn, of Ormiston, was a principal member and founder of this institution; and, the dukes of Hamilton, and Athol, Hopeton, and Iɛlay, exerted themselves to facilitate the objects of this society. At length, this excellent institution, at one time consisting of more than 300 members, became neglected, and was dissolved, after about twenty years of valuable services to Scotland.

The establishment of the Dublin Agricultural Society, in 1749, gave a stimulus to agriculture in Ireland. Its origin may be traced as early as 1731; when Prior, of Rathdowney, Queen's County, and a number of other gentlemen, associated themselves for the improvement of agriculture and husbandry. In 1749, Prior, by means of the lord lieutenant, procured a grant of £10,000 per annum, from the Irish government, in aid of so desirable an object. Miss Plumtree considers this the first association of the kind, formed within the British dominions; but, we have seen that the Agricultural Society of Edinburgh was organized in 1723.

COUNTY SOCIETIES, for the promotion of agriculture, which multiplied in every direction during the eighteenth century, evince the interest attached to that pursuit in England. Among them, the highest rank may certainly be claimed for the Bath and West of England, established in 1777, and the Highland Society of Scotland,

THE LONDON BOARD OF AGRICULTURE, was established by act of Parliament, 17th May, 1793, and constituted by royal charter, 22d of August following, for the encouragement of Agriculture and Internal Improvement. "The circumstances,' says Sir J. Sinclair, the president and founder of this excellent institution, which led to the establishment of a board, so likely to be of material service both to this country and to society at large, cannot fail to be interesting to the public.' 'In 1786,' this gentleman informs us, 'he undertook an extensive journey through the most interesting parts of Europe, to obtain political information, to ascertain the state of other countries, and to discover every means which had been sanctioned by the experience of other nations, that could be successfully introduced for the improvement of Great Britain:" that, in the course of that tour,' in which he travelled 7500 miles in seven months and a half, he became acquainted with the most distinguished authors, the ablest statesmen, and the most zealous patriots, that Europe could then boast:' and 'returned full of ardour, to establish, in his own country, the beneficial institutions, which were scattered over others; and to make this island the centre of the various improvements of which political society was capable, more especially those of an agricultural nature.' Circumstances, however, having occasioned a coldness with the minister, he found that any attempt, to carrry such measures into effect, was not likely to be successful in parliament, and thence he was under the necessity of waiting for a more favourable opportunity.' Sir John Sinclair adds, that having published his History of the Revenue, which he had intended to have concluded with a chapter on the political circumstances of the country; he then saw the necessity of forming some institution for the express purpose of collecting statistical information, the public having felt the most serious inconveniences and losses, from information of that nature not being any where to be obtained. This suggested the idea of beginning that useful and extensive work, the Statistical account of Scotland, concluded in 21 vols. 8vo. and to the completion of which 900 individuals of intelligence and ability contributed their assistance. About the same time, Sir John, having received information respecting the celebrated wool of the Shetland isles, and of the dangers to which their flocks were exposed, was led to lay a statement of these facts before the Highland Society, who gave every assistance in their power, and to suggest the erection of a new Society, entitled the British Wool Society, for the special purpose of improving British wool. The busi ness of that Society was carried on with such

energy and success, that in the summer of 1792, 'the greater part of this island had been surveyed, by persons skilled in the management of sheep, whose observations were circulated over the kingdom.' It was in the preface to an account published by that Society of one of these tours, that Sir John first hinted at the establishment of a Board of Agriculture. After stating that they had established many important facts; that they had proved that the finest breeds of Spain or of England will thrive on the wildest of the Cheviot hills, and that very fine woollen breeds may be propagated in the most mountainous districts of Scotland,' he adds, "but unless a Board of Agriculture be constituted, for the purpose of superintending the improvements of the sheep and wool of the country, and other objects connected, either with the cultivation or pasturage of the soil, he should despair of any considerable success in those pursuits.' Impressed with these ideas, Sir John Sinclair went to London in December 1792, resolving to attempt the establishment of such a Board.

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On the 15th of May, 1793, this gentleman made his motion in parliament for this purpose, 'It is supposed,' said he, that there are sixty-seven millions of acres in Britain, of which seven millions are occupied with houses, roads, rivers, lakes, &c. There remained sixty millions, of which five millions only were employed in raising grain; twenty-five millions were appropriated to pasturage, and there remained thirty millions either completely waste, or under a very defective system of husbandry. That was an object of astonishing importance. Disgraceful, indeed it was, that nearly one half of the kingdom, which might furnish subsistence to above ten millions of people, should remain in such a state.' By the efforts of the proposed institution, he considered the stock of the farmer might be rendered infinitely more valuable, without requiring a greater quantity of food, or any additional care or expense.' The additional value of black cattle, of which it is supposed there are five millions in the island, he estimated, at 20s. a head, would add five millions per annum to the national wealth. There are at least twenty milhions of sheep in Britain. By improving the fleece, 1s. per sheep might be added to the value of the wool, which would produce one million: the manufacturer of the wool can treble the value; hence an addition of other five millions per annum; and the profits arising from improving the carcase would be still more considerable. Great improvements might also be made in other kinds of stock. Great savings would arise by the use of improved instruments of husbandry, while by following judicious systems adapted to the different soils, ground would be cultivated at much less expence and with greater advantage. These improvements would furnish the means of healthful occupations to many thousands, almost millions of people, who, from the integrity of their private conduct, and the vigour of their constitutions, should as much as possible be multiplied.' To secure these advantages a Board of Agriculture was absolutely necessary, 1. As a general magazine for agricultural knowledge. 2. As the best means of collecting

and circulating that knowledge, and exciting a spirit of experiment. 3. As the most certain method of establishing an extensive foreign correspondence, to procure the most speedy information of agricultural improvements and discoveries, in all quarters of the globe. 4. As a public body, capable of being entrusted with the privilege of franking, to render its correspondence less expensive. 5. As the only medium, through which any general improvement of stock could be expected, the authority and influence of a public board far surpassing the exertions of private societies, however active, in removing deep-rooted prejudices, and concentrating the knowledge of many individuals of different professions. And, 6. As the best means of obtaining a statistical account of England, and giving a view of the real state of that country; such as had already been nearly completed in Scotland, and which might soon be universally followed in other countries: And thus the principles of political society, and the sources of national improvement, would be more completely ascertained, than in any former period of history.' For when persons talked with raptures of the great wealth brought into this country by commerce, they did not consider that the nation in many cases lost as much by neglecting agriculture, as they gained by commerce. The Board was finally appointed to consist of a president, treasurer, secretary, under-secretary, two or more surveyors, one or more clerks, with such other officers as may be necessary, and thirty ordinary members: besides the archbishops of Canterbury and York, the lord chancellor, or lord keeper of the great seal, lord president, lord privy seal, lord treasurer, or first commissioner of the Treasury, lord high admiral, or first lord commissioner of the admiralty, the bishops of London and Durham, the two secretaries of state, the master of ordnance, the speaker of the house of commons, the president of the Royal Society, the surveyor general of woods and forests, and the surveyor of the crown lands, for the time being; who are all members ex officiis. The annual election of officers and members was appointed for the 25th of March, when five of the ordinary members were to go out, and five others to be chosen. At all meetings of the Board, seven should be a quorum for doing business, the president or the deputy being always one: and the number of honorary members to be unlimited.

At first Sir J. Sinclair's friends had little hopes of his success, and when he informed Mr A. Young, that he had an appointment with Mr Pitt to explain the advantages of the measure, Mr. Young wrote, 'When you come from Mr. Pitt, I shall have won the wager, (that he would not succeed.) Pray don't give ministers more credit than they deserve. In manufactures and commerce, you may bet securely, but they never did, and never will do any thing for the plough. Your board will be a Board in the Moon.' Sir John, however, took every prudent measure to insure success. M. Dundas early promised his assistance, notwithstanding their political differences; and Mr. Pitt assured him, that he would not oppose the measure, but that his support would depend on what he judged was the

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