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station to station in skins, by means of nels, the same as other goods. A certain tion of their beasts of burden being set art for that purpose; the load of camel is out three or four hundred weight, and the exnce of carriage a farthing a mile for every ndred weight.

The heat of the climate arises from its being nost equally intersected by the equator; and so intense that Mr. Park lying in his hut of eds in the dry season, could not endure to ld his hand against the hot wind that blew rough the crevices, and even the negroes, en the wind blew from E. or N. E. could not ar to touch the ground with their feet; nertheless, owing to a different elevation and her circumstances, the climate is in some parts reeable. The southern side of the equator is ilder than the north, though at an equal disnce; but near the Mediterranean, even the orth is not disagreeable to Europeans refreshed it is by its sea-breezes, and rendered cool by s vicinity to the mountains.

QUADRUPEDS. The beasts of Africa are numeous, and are considered amongst the most excaordinary in the world, for strength, size, and erocity. They reign undisturbed in the vast leserts of this amazing peninsula, fostered by the ultry heat of the climate, which seems more suitable to them than to any other of its productions. The majestic lion roams at large, and there are but few tracts where the traveller is safe from his dreadful incursions. The tiger is seldom seen; but the panther, the leopard, and the hyæna, are almost peculiar to this division of the globe; as is also one species of the rhinoceros, distinguished by two horns on the nose; and one of the elephant, remarkable for a round head, convex forehead, large ears, and only three toes on the hind feet. Baboons, apes, and monkies, leap in myriads through the woods, and many of them grow to an astonishing stature.

The simia troglodytes chimpansè, or ourangoutang, in appearance greatly resembling the human species, commonly running to the height of from five to six feet, is a native of Africa. Crocodiles and hippopotami abound in the rivers; the black bear is a native of Barbary; horses and asses run wild. The zebra and quagga are seen commonly by travellers: and there are no fewer than thirty kinds of antelopes, celebrated for their fleetness and beauty. The great Caffrarian buffalo is very ferocious, and is said to be a species peculiar to Africa. The dromedary is emphatically called the ship of the desert;' and is the most useful animal in that part of the world. His large flat hoof, the power of carrying water for himself and his master, together with his great strength to support burdens, render him almost the only animal capable of travelling in the burning sands, and without him, many of these deserts would be totally impassable. The camel dromedary is more lightly formed than the camel, and is used when extraordinary swiftness is required. He will walk fifty miles a day, with ease, and when made to gallop will travel 200 miles for many days in succession, and frequently, in cases of extreme exigence, has been known to travel 300 miles in twenty hours. Dro

medaries are trained by the Moors for the purposes of war and plunder. South of the Niger, the ass is commonly employed for travelling; the ground being so irregular and mountainous, that the camel would not be of any service. But elephants are perhaps the most numerous of all the larger animals of Africa: they roam in vast herds, through the forests of the interior, and have been thought a species quite distinct from those of Asia. The inhabitants, when they see an elephant, hunt him down, feast upon his flesh, make sandals of his hide, and sell his teeth to Europeans. Their mode of attacking them is by fire-arms; as soon as they have discharged their pieces at one of them, they fall flat on the ground to avoid the first effects of his resentment; but no sooner is he become faint with the loss of blood, than they rise and make a second discharge, which commonly terminates his life. In some parts of Africa, elephants are caught in pits, in a manner similar to that practised in the island of Ceylon.

BIRDS. There have been calculated 642 species of birds, of which nearly 500 are peculiar to Africa; and of eighty-seven genera, six or eight are peculiar. Parrots are generally scarce in Africa; but insectivorous and frugivorous birds are very numerous. The guinea fowl, of which there are three species, is a native. The ostrich commonly rising to the height of six or eight feet, abounds in the sandy deserts, and is remarkable for swiftness. They flock together in large troops, at a distance resembling an army of soldiers, and in swiftness exceed the fleetest horse. The eggs of the ostrich frequently exceed three pounds in weight; and these the bird deposits in the sand to be hatched by the heat of the sun. The didus or dodo, formerly known in some parts of the continent, is supposed to be now entirely extinct, none of the species having been seen for a great length of time.

INSECTS.-Africa swarms with the most beautiful insects. The migratory locust is the most formidable, marching forth in myriads, and spreading its ravages over the most fertile provinces; they have been known to cover an area of 2000 square miles; and hitherto no means have been able to prevent their progress. The ant is also numerous, building nests, each from ten to twenty feet in height; not only destroying every thing in the houses, but even cutting through the trunks of trees in a few weeks. The tsaltsalya is a dreadful scourge, particularly in Abyssinia. The scorpion is a native of spiders there are two kinds, the tarantula, which abounds in Barbary; and the tendaraman, a native of Morocco, whose bite is fatal. The great centipede is found in every part of the interior regions.

The conchologist meets innumerable varieties

of the most beautiful shells, on the borders of all the coasts and rivers; where are also found many species of zoophytes, in some places constructing reefs and islands of immense magnitude and extent. The guinea worm is frequently met with; and the famous nautilus of the ancients, is found in the African seas.

REPTILES.—Africa is full of reptiles and serpents of every description; of these the larger ones belong to the Python tribe. Crocodiles

abound in the large rivers; but happily for the people, one species of tortoise, called tyrsé, devours the young crocodiles in great numbers, the moment they are hatched. The ouaran of the Nile also, a species of lizard from three to six feet long, greatly venerated by the ancient Egyptians, devours the croco lile's eggs. The boa constrictor is one of the most terrible serpents in Africa, both from its prodigious size, and habits. The hate, which the ancients called aspic, is taught by the Egyptian jugglers to dance; this animal, from its practice of erecting itself on being approached, was adopted by the ancients as the emblem of protection, and sculptured as such on the portals of their temples. The cameleon is a native of Egypt and Barbary. PLANTS, &C.-The vegetable kingdom opens to the botanist a field untraversed, at present, by the foot of science; containing a beautiful variety of all those plants that charm the eye, and adorn the fair face of nature. The baobab, or calabash tree, exhibits the most extraordinary dimensions. Its height, though commonly reaching sixty or seventy feet, bears no proportion to the trunk. Adanson is said to have found one in the island of Senegal, which measured seventy-four feet in circumference; the branches of which, spreading in all directions, were as large as common trees; thus constituting, of itself, a species of forest. The mangrove, which grows on the banks of rivers, strikes root in its bed, forming a platform above the water, and a little arcade below the stream. The shea, or vegetable butter-tree, is curious and important to the natives; whilst, on the borders of the desert, is found the celebrated lotus tree, the fruit of which, (a farinaceous berry,) when prepared, becomes very nutritious, and equal in taste to the sweetest gingerbread. The flora of Africa is not yet half explored: although it has already added to botany many new and interesting species, a great harvest yet remains in the


MINERALS. Various metals have been found in Africa, but none of them characteristic, excepting gold. This metal is found on every part of the central mountains, occurs frequently in an alluvial soil, and is also found in the rivers. That which is brought to Egypt, Fez, Algiers, Morocco, &c. is commonly brought from Bambouk, north-west of the Kong mountains. Pure gold is said to be found in veins in the district opposite Madagascar. Africa produces besides the jasper, agate, emerald, topaz, numerous other precious stones. Copper is found in the Western Atlas; also in the adjacent region about Fertit, Abyssinia, Mozambique, Congo, and the mountains beyond the Orange river. Mines of silver are found in the territory of Tunis: iron abounds in Morocco and other places.

INHABITANTS.-Africa is considered to have been first peopled by Ham and his immediate des cendants. Mizraim peopled Egypt, (Gen. x. 6, 13.) The Pathrusim, Naphtalim, Cafluhim, and Ludim, took possession of other parts, but their relative situations are not accurately known, The Lehabim have been supposed to have settled in Libya; Phut, between Numidia and

Libya, along the Mediterranean; and that many of the Canaanites retired into Africa when driven from their own country by Joshua. The Auses, whose chief city was Auza, the Maxyes, and Machlyes, (Libyan nations) the Zaueces, and Zygantes, are supposed all to have been a misture of the old Libyans and Phoenicians. The Garamautes, Gatuli, Hesperiani, Ethiopians, &c. inhabited the western regions. The Astacuri, Dolopes, Blemmyes, Cadupi, Ichthyoran, Lotophagi, Elephantophagi, &c. are feigned have inhabited the southern regions. T present inhabitants of this peninsula are com monly divided into Moors and Negroes. The former supposed to be the descendants of the ancient Arabs, blended with numerous other nations, who have settled in Africa. These have, for the most part, occupied the habitable parts, and driven the negroes into the southern regions, or beyond the great rivers. The Moors are piratical, treacherous, unsettled, roaming like their ancestors, from place to place; and being superstitious Mahommedans, are generally very hostile to Europeans. The term is, however, vaguely applied, since, during the middle ages, all the Mahommedans were called Turks and Moors; and all who were not of the former, were considered of the latter. At present the name is chiefly restricted to the inhabitants of the cities of Barbary. Their general character is rudeness and austere superstition. Their towns are gloomy, having narrow streets. Their houses have walls of earth, and are destitute of windows; and even their internal splendour is barbarous. Compared with the Turks, the Moors are generally an inferior race. Jews exist in great numbers in Barbary, where, as they exhibit their peculiarities and political distinctions, they are the objects of derision and contempt. The inhabitants of Egypt are chiefly foreigners. The Copts are of a yellow dusky complexion; the females elegant and interesting. They are said to be the only race descended from the original natives. The proper Arabians chiefly occupy the country districts, residing in tents woven of camels hair and the fibres of the palm; forming a sort of moveable towns and villages. The government is under a sheik and emir, or patr archal chiefs, tributary to the sovereign of the Moors. The mountains are occupied by inde pendent tribes. The negroes are gentle, hospi table, and affectionate; but, withal, improvident, thievish, and superstitious. They are divided into two classes, Foulahs and Mandingoes. The former hold Mahommedanism, divested of some of its gloomy features, and are esteemed one of the most respectable tribes in Africa. Their original country is situated east of Bambouk, and is denominated Fooladoo; but their principal kingdom is that behind Sierra Leone, of which Temboo is the capital. Amidst all the different tribes and kingdoms occupying this great peninsula, the forms of government are almost infinitely diversified.

AGRICULTURE.-Agriculture and the arts are in a very imperfect state amongst all the native tribes of this continent. In none, with the exception of Whydah, is landed property at all recognized, nor have they the means of applying

e advantages which have resulted from Euroan skill, or even European implements to the ltivation of the earth. The hoe is the only strument with which the ground is tilled; and ark mentions it as a surprizing instance, no here else seen in Africa, that for a mile round Airwanny the country was entirely cleared of wood. The labour of cultivating the earth is ommon to a whole village during two short easons, seed time, and harvest, when all the inabitants go out headed by their chief, while heir musicians attend and cheer the toil by the conjoined harmony of their different voices and


MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE.-Manufactures are in a still less advanced state, the most extensive department of which is cotton cloths, and this is mostly carried on by each family for its own use. Dressing of leather alone, of all African manufactures, forms an article of export to Europe.

Meanume, commerce, except on the coasts of the Mediterranean and Red Sea, has never been in a flourishing state; the west of Africa having nothing but an immeasureable waste of ocean before it, wanted an opposite coast with which to trade. Inland commerce has, however, been more extensive, and has overcome the mightiest obstacles ever presented to mutual communication. Deserts full of shifting sands, where wide desolation seemed fatal to every thing endued with life, are traversed by large and numerous caravans. In these the camel, called the ship of the land', is almost exclusively employed; and by his means the commercial Arabs have penetrated even to the depths of Interior Africa.

CARAVAN ROUTES.-The number of camels composing a caravan is various, but generally from 500 to 2000. They travel at the rate of three miles an hour, and for six or seven hours in the day, from station to station till they have completed the entire route. The party are supported by the milk of the camel, barley meal, Indian corn, dates, &c.; and on arriving at the different stations commonly remain a few days to recruit their stock of provisions, and refresh themselves and cattle. Without professing to enumerate all the caravan tracts which stretch across the vast deserts of Africa, we shall specify the principal points from which they set out, and some of the places where they stop for refreshment, occasionally making a short stay of two or three days. The points whence they generally set out are three, Morocco, Fezzan, and Egypt. The caravans from Morocco are very large, and proceed to Soudan, or Tombuctoo, chiefly the latter. The principal stations being the rendezvous Akka or Tatta, Tegazza, Taudeny and Arawdu or Arodu. The whole Journey occupies 129 days, sixty-five of which are spent in rest. Another route to the same point is by Wedinoon, Cape Bojador, and Gualata, although many travellers prefer directing their course to Bambarra, and the banks of the Senegal. Of late, a negro state has been established on the borders of Morocco, forming a species of entrepot for the commodities of Soudan, which prevents many Moorish mer

chants crossing the deserts. Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan, is a sort of central point for the trade of Interior Africa, and has several caravan routes of considerable importance; one to Cairo which requires about forty days. The halting places being Seivah, Augila, and Temissa; another leads to Bornou, through the deserts of Bilma and Tibesti, a journey of fifteen days. The principal halts of which are Temissa, Dourboo and Kavem. A third leads to Tombuctoo by Gadamis. Its longest, and perhaps most important route, is to Cashna through Heatts, Ganatt and Agades, a journey of sixty days, although the caravan frequently crosses the Niger, and turning westward proceeds over the mountains of Kong to Ashantee. Egypt sends out three caravans for the general rendezvous at Cairo, one to Sennaar, another to Darfur, and a third to Fezzan; the latter is annual, the two former once in two or three years, The caravan, with which Mr. Browne travelled, consisted of 500 camels, but the number often amounts to as many as 2000.

INTERNAL COMMERCE.-Salt, the chief article of commerce from North Africa, is an article of luxury in the interior regions, where the inhabitants suck it as children do sweetmeats. It is sold in its rocky state, in slabs of twentyfour feet long, each worth £2 or £2 10s. and is exchanged by the caravans for the gold of Nigritia.

Dr. Shaw assures us that the western Moors carry on a trade with the barbarous nations bordering upon the Niger, without ever seeing the persons they trade with. They make this journey,' says he, in a numerous caravan, carrying along with them coral and glass beads, bracelets of horn, knives, scissars, and such like trinkets. When they arrive at the place appointed, which is on such a day of the moon,they find in the evening several different heaps of gold dust, lying at a small distance from each other, against which the Moors place so many of their trinkets as they judge will be taken in exchange for them. If the Nigritians the next morning approve of the bargain, they take up the trinkets and leave the gold dust, or else make some deductions from the latter. In this manner they transact their business without seeing one another, or without the least instance of dishonesty or perfidiousness.' The antiquity of this custom is at least as high as Herodotus, as appears from the following passage. It is their custom,' speaking of the Carthaginians, to unload their vessels, and dispose their goods along the shore. This done, they again embark, and make a great smoke from on board. The natives seeing this, come down to the shore, and placing a quantity of gold, by way of exchange for the merchandize, retire. The Carthaginians then land a second time; and if they think the gold equivalent take it and depart, if not they go aboard their vessels again. The inhabitants return and add more till the crews are satisfied. The whole is conducted with the strictest integrity, for neither will the one touch the gold till they have left the value in merchandize, nor the other remove the goods till the Carthaginians have taken the gold.' Herod. Melp. 196.'

The articles furnished for the internal commerce of Africa, are chiefly sashes, silk handkerchiefs, carpets, woollen caps, and leather furnished by the Mediterranean states, gold, ivory, gums, hides, oil, skins, woods, &c. are derived from all parts of the peninsula, together with arms, agricultural implements, and ornaments for the chiefs and the women.

EARLY GEOGRAPHY.-Little of the geography of this vast section of the earth was known to the ancients, and of what information they had acquired respecting it we are but imperfectly informed. Many voyages made in the early ages were never written; and others have perished in the lapse of time. Geography rose like the morning sun, first breaking through the clouds of the east, and brightening most of all, that division of the hemisphere; but, as it arose, it widened its influence, and seemed to pour its broad sun-beams upon every portion of the world. Early attempts were made to explore the region of Africa, as is evident from facts and evidences recorded in history. Eratosthenes notices the first division of the old world into continents. This began in the islands of the Cyclades, and was, no doubt, intended originally to distinguish between the opposite shores of Greece and Caria. The latter of these, including a small district denominated Asia, has since given its name to that division of the globe. The coast of Lybia was called Africa, or Southland, from its position with respect to Greece. The north coast was known early to the European nations of the north, whose several districts are frequently mentioned in their writings; and along the western coast, discovery proceeded with a more advanced step than on that directly opposite; but all expeditions to effect its circumnavigation are considered to have failed.

Herodotus says, that Necho, king of Egypt, having desisted from his attempt to cut a canal from the Nile to the Arabian Gulph, fitted out an expedition under the direction of Phoenician navigators, to sail round this Continent. Their directions were, to take their course down the Red Sea, to sail down the Southern Ocean, to double the Columns of Hercules, and return by way of the Mediterranean. The navigators are said to have succeeded; but Herodotus himself avows a degree of scepticism, because they said, that having sailed round Lybia, they had the sun on their right hand. Such, however, must have been their actual observation during their voyage down the regions south of the equinoctial line, according to the subsequent demonstrations of astronomy. The great and numerous obstacles they must have encountered in that rude period of navigation, have always rendered the long voyages of the ancients suspicious, especially those which relate to the circumnavigation of Africa. The Portuguese experienced innumerable difficulties in doubling the Cape Bojador, and effected it at last only by means of the compass, which enabled them to stand out to sea: destitute of that instrument, M. Gosselin thinks they never could have succeeded. Huet, (Commerce et Navigation des Anciens, 34, 275,) the Abbe Paris, (Academie des Sciences, vii. 79,) Montesque, (Esprit des Lois, b. xxi. c. 10,) con

tend that it was really performed, while Vossius, (in his Notes to Pomponius Mela,) D'Anvilie, and others, are very unbelieving. A discussion of the question has taken place between Major Rennell on the one side, and Dr. Vincent and M. Gosselin on the other. In the opinion of the last two gentlemen named, Gibbon, in an essay written upon that subject, appears to coincide; viz. that such an expedition exceeds all the means and resources of ancient navigation. Whatever disputants may advance with respect to this voyage, one fact is certain, viz. that if Africa was circumnavigated by the Phoenicians, all their discoveries have entirely perished. Subsequent to the attempt of Necho, Sataspe made an attempt to sail round Africa. He was a Persian nobleman, whom Xerxes had condemned to be crucified; but afterwards altered the sentence to that of making a voyage round Africa. He commenced his undertaking, and passed the straits; but sailing for months together down the western coast, and having no prospect before him but immense deserts on the one hand, and a trackless ocean on the other, his courage failed him, and he returned. Eudoxus, a native of Cyzicus, who made the next attempt, procured from surrounding states a pretty large expedition, with a view to the same object, but his intimidated crew, compelling him to keep near the shore, the ship ran aground. He then constructed a new vessel out of the old materials, and set out afresh, but was obliged to return, the vessel being too small to effect any useful purpose. Bocchus, king of Mauritania, afterwards engaged to send him out afresh; but doubting the sincerity of his patron, he retired to Iberia, where he fitted out an expedition superior to the former; but the narrative, which was written by Strabo, closed about the time the expedition sailed, and we have nothing further of its success.

Other voyages were undertaken with nearly the same success. Sixty vessels were sent out by the Carthaginians, containing 30,000 persons, under the conduct of Hanno, for the purposes of the better discovery and colonization of Africa; they doubled the promontory of Lybia, erected the celebrated temple of Neptune, and crossing the bay, came to the great river Lixus, and landed on the island of Cerne, where they planted a colony. They afterwards proceeded along the coast, and saw numerous islands; but discouraged perhaps at the greatness of the undertaking, returned to Cerne. How far they went is not distinctly known. M. Gosselin considers they proceeded along the coast of Morocco, to the river Nun; but Major Rennell thinks they went beyond Sierra Leone, whose mountains are the identical ones which they denominated the Chariot of the gods. Their descriptions correspond with the present features of the coast about the Gambia and Senegal. The Periplus of Hanno, containing the journal of this voyage, has given rise to much learned and elaborate discussion, and was opposed by numerous objections by Dod well, in the Oxford edition of the Minor Grees Geographers. The authenticity of this celebrated document, is now, nevertheless, acknowledged; and the work itself thought one of the most curious and valuable memoirs of antiquity. As

to the portion of coast sailed over, different opinions are entertained; and upon the detail of the voyage, three different systems have been advanced by Bougainville, Gosselin, and Rennell. The earliest voyages to the east, are those mentioned in Bible history, viz. to Tarshish and Ophir. These evidently extended a considerable distance along the coast of the Indian Ocean. With regard to the interior, remote anuquity is almost silent upon well attested facts of geographical exploration. Herodotus mentions an adventurous journey of five young Nasamonians, who penetrated the great sandy Desert, and were taken by some little darkcoloured men, and carried to a city inhabited by people like themselves. This city is supposed by Rennell to be a city of Central Africa, and a river mentioned by the same author, to have been the river Niger. To the countries watered by the Niger, the knowledge of the ancients was in a great measure confined. A distinction stated by Herodotus between Ethiopians and Africans, appears to correspond with the modern division of Moors and Negroes. He appears to have adopted the error still popular in Africa, viz. that of confounding the Niger with the Nile. He supposed the river just mentioned to have been the western part of the Nile. But by his tracing the Nile four months sail from the lower extremity of Egypt, and considering it as flowing from the south-west, that he was acquainted with the true source of that river, to say the least, is probable. The expedition of two divisions of the army of Cambyses, (to the south and west of Egypt,) the latter of which is supposed to have perished in the desert, constituted the next effort to explore the interior of Africa. Alexander, when at Memphis, visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, but lost a great part of his troops in the attempt. War and commerce, however, gradually opened a way into these regions. Under the Ptolemies we may suppose many efforts were made, and by the Romans, expeditions were sent under Septimius Flaccus and Julius Maternus, as intimated by Ptolemy, b. i. c. 8. The best ancient description of interior Africa is to be found in Ptolemy. Though unacquainted with the extent of Sahara, and the geographical scite of Nigritia, he has shown himself acquainted with the whole course of the Niger, and the general geography of the African rivers. His description of the Niger is, that it 'joins together Mount Thala and Mount Mandrus,' lib. iv. c. 6. His predecessor, Eratosthenes, who is said to have formed the first regular geographical system, evinced considerable knowledge of the African His theory respecting the Nile is curious. Placing, in common with Strabo, Mela, and other writers, the southern extremity of Africa, on this side the equator, they supposed beyond the equator a great antichthonos or balancing continent, and convinced that the true source of the Nile must be beyond what they then imagined the limit of the southern extremity of Africa, they placed the source of the Nile in the southern continent, and supposed its early course to be under the ocean till it emerged on the southern shore of Africa. The Arabians have given



some little information, which is correct and valuable, with much that is poetic and fabulous. The most copious of their writers is Edrisi. Nubia was little known to him. The Nubians and Egyptians being of different religions, even the merchants of each country, instead of travelling into the territories of the other, brought their commodities to the opposite side of the great cataract; where, as soon as they had landed and made the exchange, they immediately re-embarked. the absence of this medium, the Arabians opened for themselves another. They had penetrated at a remote period, across the great Desert, to the eastern shores of the Niger; and through the fertility of its banks and the richness of its golden sands, they formed settlements. Emigration and revolution swelled the tide, till, in the course of two centuries, several great Mahommedan kingdoms were established on the Niger. Of these new establishments Ghana or Gana, stood preeminent, bordering upon the Wangara, where the overflowings of the Niger impregnated the soil with gold. A regular system of commerce was established with other Mussulman states; and caravans were seen in all directions, traversing the vast expansive deserts. The position of Ulil, described by Edrisi as an island situated in the sea at one day's sail from the mouth of the Nile of the negroes,' or Niger, is not positively determined. It is highly probable that this sea must have been an inland lake, which, supposition has extended much to the west of Tombuctoo. East of Gana lay Wangara, the celebrated ‘country of gold,' represented by the Arabs as nearly surrounded with the branches of the Nile, by which it is inundated during the rainy season; and as containing two lakes near the cities of Semegonda and Reghehil. The Tocrur, and several other kingdoms being founded, the Arabs extended themselves westward through Barbary. Flourishing settlements were also formed on the coast, colonized by Arabians. These were mostly at Melinda, Monbaza, and Sofala, called commonly the Golden Sofala, Vakvak, or Quac; Quac forms here the indistinct limit of knowledge. The Arabians had no idea of the existence of Good Hope Cape. It appears by the curious map of Edrisi, on the contrary, that, like Ptolemy, he extended it to the east till it became conterminous with India and China: hence his placing the island Vakvak in the sea of China, which so perplexes Hartmann.

Subsequent to the flourishing æra of Arabian science, extending from the tenth to the fourteenth century, geographical discovery has been the exclusive boast of Europeans. In the fifteenth century Africa was circumnavigated, its figure was ascertained, its country colonized. The Portuguese one of the most insignificant states of Europe, influenced by curiosity, avarice, and a desire to detect, in the person of a rumoured Christian sovereign on the eastern coast, that real Prester John, whose abode they were most anxious to ascertain, penetrated at the two opposite points of Abyssinia and Congo; but, instead of making fresh discoveries, only darkened and perplexed what had been known before. The Nile for instance, was said to rise in Abys sinia. Abyssinia itself was immensely extended,

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